Air conditioning, also known as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the science of vehicular and indoor environmental conditioning. The purpose of HVAC is to keep indoor air temperatures at an acceptable level to deter viral and airborne diseases. It is a complex system of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning that involves two key components: an air conditioner and a heat pump. An air conditioner extracts heat from the air and transfers it to the room; a heat pump, by contrast, transfers heat through refrigeration or liquid cooling to the unit.
The air conditioning unit heats water to a temperature suitable for indoor use while removing moisture and particles from the air. The air conditioning unit condenses water into a Freon or refrigerant, which replaces the moisture in the air with cold air. The air conditioning unit then dumps the cooled air into the air ducts of the structure. Air ducts are long tube sections of metal ductwork extending from ceiling to floor and attached to the exterior of structures like furnaces, boilers, and heaters. All conditioned air passes through these ducts until it reaches the indoor units.
A current air conditioning system will have at least one pre-installed thermostat controller, which is used to program the temperatures of the pre-chillulated water used in the pre-heating coils. As the temperature inside the building rises, the water temperature in the chillers rises also. As a result of this feedback loop, the room temperature will be maintained even as outside temperatures rise by several degrees, bringing the entire system into the undesirable warm air conditioner territory.
A number of cooling options are available to deal with this problem. In most instances, the conventional cooling condenser is used to maintain the average temperature in the space. In addition, high-efficiency refrigerant chilled air is sometimes used, which has higher temperatures that reach the desired cooling temperature. However, these require more energy than the standard alternatives.
There are a number of different types of air conditioning systems on the market that address these problems, such as: split units, in-floor and out-of-floor units, and variable-frequency cooling systems. Split units are used to cool and/or heat individual spaces in a building in ways that balance heating and cooling loads. In-floor units are installed in the floor space directly below or above a conventional refrigeration system.
Out-of-floor air conditioning systems are installed in buildings where conventional air conditioning systems cannot adequately cool the space. Variable-frequency air conditioning systems offer an alternative to achieving high cooling temperatures by using a counter-rotating cooling fan. The fan is set to rotate at a precise frequency to optimize air flow through the coils and air ducts. In addition, these units are very energy efficient and are often used in places where conventional cooling systems are impractical or excessively expensive.