It is vital to develop healthier and healthy population

As per the World Health Organization, a couple of decades ago, diabetes was a rare disease both in developed and developing nations. Nowadays, the situation is quite different. The current estimate is that more than 143 million people around the world suffer from the disease. The number is constantly growing in 2020. By 2020, over 220million people are predicted to be suffering from diabetes should the current trend continue.

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The United States alone, there are 18.2 million people (6.3 percent of the total population) who suffer from diabetes. In addition, 13 million people have been diagnosed with the disease. However, 5.2milion (or nearly one third) are unaware they suffer from the disease.

The number for Nigeria isn’t available, however estimates suggest that more than 1.5million people suffer from Diabetes in Nigeria.

In developed countries, the majority of people suffering from diabetes are over sixty. In developing countries, diabetes has been discovered to affect people who are who are in their prime.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes Mellitus (or simply diabetes) is taken from the Greek term ‘Diabeinein’ meaning ‘to traverse’, which refers to a lot of urine, and Mellitus comes from the Latin word meaning’sweetened by honey’. Both words represent sweetened urine or the presence of sugar in urine.

The disease of diabetes is one where the body doesn’t produce or use properly Insulin. Insulin is a hormone which is required in the body, to regulate the rate at which sugars as well as starch and other foods transform into glucose needed to provide energy for the daily demands of life. The hormone is created and released

The blood is pumped out through an organ called the “Pancreas’. The insulin helps to keep the blood glucose levels within the normal range. It is believed that the World Health Organization (WHO) places this normal range at

60-100 mg/dl (Before eating any food during the day, thus this number is known as fasting blood Glucose). In the health setting, despite numerous needs for glucose in various situations, blood glucose level rarely exceeds this level.

After eating, your liver store the sugar accumulated from the meal as glycogen . It then releases it into blood during the interval between meals. The main function of insulin is the management of this release and storage of glucose. It ensures that the quantity of glucose in blood at any particular moment is not in excess or below the normal range.

Types of DIABETES.

Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Five types of diabetes are identified These are: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Type I Diabetes non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Type II Diabetes Gestational Diabetes, Diabetes Insipidus and Bronze Diabetes.

INSULIN DEPENDENT/TYPE 1 DIABETES This form of diabetes was originally known as Juvenile Occurrence Diabetes because it affects young adults. It is due to a sudden failure of the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin. It’s an acute condition, manifesting with thirst as well as polyuria (passing large quantities of urine) diuresis, weight loss. The type I form of diabetes isn’t widespread, and it is responsible for less than 10 percent of all cases of diabetes.

Non-INSULIN DEPENDENTor TYPE II DIABETES It is the most widespread type of diabetesand accounts for over 80percent of diabetic cases. It’s seen in both seniors and adults. The type of diabetes develops slowly over a prolonged duration (unnoticed) It is defined by a lack of insulin levels, low levels of insulin in the blood , or the inability to use the insulin receptor (Insulin resistance). Due to the slow and gradual development it’s usually not noticed until one or more long-term effects become evident.

In contrast to Type I Diabetes, the Insulin in the blood of the Type II diabetic may be normal, or even high however, it does not have the desired effects due to insulin resistance and this is the case for overweight people.

GESTATIONAL DIABETIES: This form of diabetes develops in the early stages of pregnancy and is gone after the birth, usually within 3 weeks. About 3percent of all births are affected by gestational diabetes and nearly half of them are at risk of developing permanent diabetes later on in the course of their lives.

What is the cause of DIABETES.

Like hypertension and other diseases that are not communicable there is no definitive cause(s) is able to be traced to the most widespread form that is diabetes (Type II Diabetes with Type I diabetes being secondary to the failure to function of pancreas). Certain aspects are believed to increase the chances of becoming diabetic , and these are known as risk factors. For instance, indolent and well-fed people are 2 20 to 20 times more likely develop type II diabetes than an the active and healthy population from the exact same ethnicity. Other factors that can increase the risk of developing the disease include:

Obesity: It’s believed that three quarters ( 3/4 ) of all Type II diabetes patient are overweight. Lifestyles that are affluent and intoxicated tend to increase the risk of this. It is thought that losing 10kg of weight will reduce the blood sugar levels by about 50mg/dl. An active lifestyle and regular exercise is known to boost the sensitivity to insulin.

The International measurement of overweight as well as obesity rests upon a figure known as BODY MASS INDEX (BMI). The BMI value is calculated by dividing the body’s mass (in Kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters).

i.e. BMI = Bodyweight (Kg) (Kg) / the height of (Metres).

Note: 1ft = 0.305metres.

Adults with a body mass index of less than 25kg/m2 is recommended.

Between 25 and 29kg/m2 is deemed overweight. Anything over 30kg/m2 constitutes Obesity.

Family history A history of diabetes in the family increases the chance of getting the disease. In this situation living a healthy and balanced life style and monitoring the blood sugar levels of one’s is extremely important.

Age and Race: The majority of Type II diabetes patient are older than 40 years at the time of onset in the course of their disease. But, the percentage of an increase in the risk of the disease with the advancing years is greater for those who have an ancestral background of diabetes, who are obese and likely those with lives of sedentary living. Additionally, diabetes tends to be more common in Africans, African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian Americans. A membership in any of the races can be an indicator of risk.

THE HISTORY OF GESTATIONAL Diabetes: A woman, there is a higher chance of developing diabetes that will last for a long time in the course of her life.


There is no cure for diabetes that lasts forever. after it is diagnosed It is controlled throughout the course of. However, you can avoid being a victim of this discomfort. If diabetes is present in people usually preceded by a condition known as PREDIABETES. It is a situation where blood sugar is higher than normal, however not enough to warrant a diagnosis of diabetes. However, it is saddening to realize that it is difficult to determine if you are in this category if aren’t keeping track of your blood sugar regularly.

Pre Diabetes is a severe medical condition, but it can be treated through changes to the eating habits and physical activities. To measure the level of blood sugar, an test known as Fasting Blood Glucose must be carried out. The test is a measure of levels of sugar (sugar) in the blood prior to taking any food during the day. The test is conducted in milligrams of deciliter (mg/dl).

A level of 100mg/dl or less is considered to be normal. However, a number higher than 100mg/dl, but below 120mg/dl isn’t yet full-blown diabetes, and it’s considered Pre diabetes. Anyone who has a pre-diabetes blood glucose level must immediately take steps to lower the risk of developing permanent diabetes.

It is important to note however that genetic and racial factors that lead to develop diabetes remain uncontrollable and beyond our comprehension. It is sensible that we should limit all factors that can be controlled by humans to a possible. A majority of these variables involve the social and dietary habits of people.

These tips can to reduce the risk of diabetes

* Lose weight. Obesity appears to be the primary reason for the development of diabetes. The reduction of body fat and weight and maintaining a healthy body weight is vital. To achieve this, the body mass index (BMI) lower than 25kg/m2 for males , and less than 24kg/m2 in females is suggested.

Increase physical activity. It’s been proven that the incidence of diabetes increases prevalent in those who lead an active lifestyle. Simple, dynamic exercises such as walking for 30-50 minutes daily or 3-5 times per week has been proven to be highly beneficial. Exercise decreases body fat and weight and improves the function for the heart and decreases the chance of developing diabetes as well as improves the mood and promotes healthy living.

* Reduce or eliminate alcohol. Drinking more than 2 units per day has been found to negatively affect the body. Being an addiction drug , it is very difficult to sustain a specific quantity of consumption for long periods of period of time. It is therefore better to work towards eliminating the alcohol completely.

Do not smoke. Smoke from cigarettes has been proven to be full of poisonous chemicals. Alcohol and smoking cigarettes are linked to a variety of diseases. Smoking less cigarettes will certainly reduce the risk of developing other illnesses, apart from diabetes.

* Develop healthy eating habits like:

Reduce your intake of junk food and foods that are fatty and unhealthy.

* Consume more the fish and poultry (without the skin as it is better).

* Garlic lowers cholesterol in blood pressure; add it to your diet plan every now and then.

Cut down the amount of eggs you consume to 3-4 eggs per week (better to boil them rather than fry them).

Reduce your salt intake to less that 5.8grams per day.

* Consume more fiber-rich foods and vegetables particularly fruit.

Also, be sure to monitor your blood sugar levels at rest because it will be the sole way of knowing when you’re getting into trouble.


Being such a complex issue requires a comprehensive treatment plan which is based around your eating habits, environmental and social factors. A variety of lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, keeping an appropriate body weight, decreasing calories and a high-fiber diet can all contribute to living an active and healthy lifestyle. These actions are known to improve the sensitivity to insulin and lower blood pressure.

It is vital to develop healthier and healthy population. People who believe that it’s more effective and less expensive to prevent an disease than treat it after it is getting more severe. Furthermore, preventive health can’t be separated from regular medical examinations since they go hand-in-hand. It is impossible to recognize a number of non-communicable diseases without regular medical examinations. The importance of these tests can’t be overemphasized.