Butyrate is a combination of several alkylamine compounds that have numerous biological activities. Butyrate is produced by bacteria in the presence of an exfoliating substance or microalgal matter. Butyrate is formed from butyrate salts and esters. Butyrate salts and esters are also produced by yeast cells and other organisms. Butyrate is a component of several different organic acids, such as glycolic acid and ethanolamine, which occur naturally in most foods.
Butyrate (CH2), a constituent of sugar, has a number of biological actions. Apart, from its role in carbohydrate metabolism, butyrate has actions on the kidney and on the skin. Chondroitin and butyrate (CH2) have anti-inflammatory actions, stimulate the production of bile and have an antibacterial action. The exact actions of butyrate on cancer is not known. Butyrate has an effect on cholesterol and on growth hormone (growth) regulation.
In acne lesions, application of butyrate can reduce the scarring. Butyrate has direct effects on skin cells through an autocrine mechanism; this means that it affects the cells below the top layer of the epidermis (outer layer of dead skin cells). The properties of butyrate that affect the skin are similar to those of lecithin, the major protein found in egg yolk. Therefore, butyrate can increase cholesterol levels in the liver and may stimulate the release of bile.